GDB Server for SoCLib

The GdbServer tool is a software debugger for SoCLib.


The GdbServer is able to manage all processors in a SoCLib platform. It listens for TCP connection from Gnu GDB clients. Once connected, clients can be used to freeze, run, step every processor in the platform, add breakpoints, catch exceptions and dump registers and memory content.

The GdbServer is not the only software debugger tool available for SoCLib. The Memory checker tool can be of some help to track bugs too.


The GdbServer contains no processor specific code and can be used to manage any SoCLib processor model using the generic Iss interface. It is implemented as an Iss wrapper class. When the GdbServer is in use, it intercepts all events between the processor Iss model and the SoCLib platform. This enables the GdbServer to access platform resources as viewed from the processor without modifying any platform components or processor model source code. The GdbServer is able to freeze the wrapped processor model while the platform is still running.

In order to simplify the debug in a multi-processor context, all processors wrapped in a GdbServer will be frozen when a breakpoint is detected in one single processor.


Adding GdbServer support to your platform

Adding the GdbServer to your topcell is easy. First include the header:

#include "gdbserver.h"

Then replace processor instantiation:

   // Without GdbServer
// soclib::caba::VciXcacheWrapper<soclib::common::Mips32ElIss> cpu0("cpu0", 0, maptab, IntTab(0), 1,8,4, 1,8,4);
   // With GdbServer
   soclib::caba::VciXcacheWrapper<soclib::common::GdbServer<soclib::common::Mips32ElIss> > cpu0("cpu0", 0, maptab, IntTab(0), 1,8,4, 1,8,4);

Finally do not forget to update the platform description file:

Uses('caba:iss_wrapper', iss_t = 'common:gdb_iss', gdb_iss_t = 'common:mips32el'),

Iss v1 and XCacheWrapper example

For using the GdbServer with the legacy Iss v1 simulators (like mipsel) models, the platform description file should contain:

Uses('caba:vci_xcache_wrapper', iss_t = 'common:gdb_iss', gdb_iss_t = 'common:ississ2', iss2_t = 'common:mipsel'),

The topcell description (top.cpp) should contain:

soclib::caba::VciXcacheWrapper<soclib::common::GdbServer<vci_param, soclib::common::IssIss2<soclib::common::MipsElIss> > > cache0("cache0", 0, maptab, IntTab(0), 1,8,4, 1,8,4);

Connecting with a GDB client

When the simulation is running, the GDB Server listen for client connections on TCP port 2346.

$ ./system.x mutekh/kernel-soclib-mips.out

Its easy to connect to the simulation with a suitable gdb client:

  • First launch the gdb client
    $ mipsel-unknown-elf-gdb mutekh/kernel-soclib-mips.out
    GNU gdb 6.7
    Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  • Then enter this first command at the prompt
    (gdb) target remote localhost:2346
    Remote debugging using localhost:2346
    0xe010cef4 in cpu_atomic_bit_waitset (a=0x602002cc, n=<error type>) at /home/diaxen/projets/mutekh/cpu/mips/include/cpu/hexo/atomic.h:99
    99      {
    Note that you can avoid typing this command every time: you just have to copy it in a .gdbinit file in the directory where gdb is executed.

Processor state analysis

The processors are now frozen. Each processor is seen as a thread by the GDB client:

(gdb) info threads
  4 Thread 4 (Processor mips_iss3)  0xe010ceec in cpu_atomic_bit_waitset (a=0x602002cc, n=<error type>)
    at /home/diaxen/projets/mutekh/cpu/mips/include/cpu/hexo/atomic.h:99
  3 Thread 3 (Processor mips_iss2)  0xe010ce64 in lock_spin (lock=0x602002cc) at /home/diaxen/projets/mutekh/arch/soclib/include/arch/hexo/lock.h:130
  2 Thread 2 (Processor mips_iss1)  0xe010d110 in gpct_lock_HEXO_SPIN_unlock (lock=0x602061e8) at /home/diaxen/projets/mutekh/hexo/include/hexo/lock.h:134
* 1 Thread 1 (Processor mips_iss0)  0xe010cef4 in cpu_atomic_bit_waitset (a=0x602002cc, n=<error type>)
    at /home/diaxen/projets/mutekh/cpu/mips/include/cpu/hexo/atomic.h:99

The first processor has thread id 1. A specific processor can be selected for registers examination with the thread command.

Note this does change processor used for single step execution though. (see advanced commands sections)

(gdb) thread 1
[Switching to thread 1 (Thread 1)]#0  0x6011d370 in sched_context_stop_unlock ()

Classical GDB debugging session takes place. Here is a register dump of the processor 0 (thread 1):

(gdb) info registers
          zero       at       v0       v1       a0       a1       a2       a3
 R0   00000000 0000ff00 00000001 00000000 60200338 00000001 00000000 e010e74c
            t0       t1       t2       t3       t4       t5       t6       t7
 R8   e010ef54 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 602021dc
            s0       s1       s2       s3       s4       s5       s6       s7
 R16  00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
            t8       t9       k0       k1       gp       sp       s8       ra
 R24  00000000 00000000 00000000 602007fc 60207ff0 60205ce8 60205ce8 e0101134
            sr       lo       hi      bad    cause       pc
      0000ff00 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 e010117c
           fsr      fir
      00000000 00000000

Running code

The following rules apply:

  • Managed processors begin executing code at simulation startup until a gdb client connect on port 2346.
  • Processors may be forced to start in frozen state waiting for incoming gdb connection by adding the F flag to the SOCLIB_GDB environment variable.
  • All the managed processors are frozen at the same time when the gdb client prompt is displayed.
  • When using the continue command, all processors resume at the same time.
  • Single step execution is only performed on the processor which was interrupted. User selection of a different processor for data examination with the thread command does not change this. (see advanced commands section below)

Exceptions catching rules:

  • Processors are stopped when an exception occurs.
  • The X flag can be added to the SOCLIB_GDB environment variable to globally disable exception catching.
  • Some monitor commands can be used to tweak exception catching for each processors separately (see below).
  • The S flag can be added to the SOCLIB_GDB environment variable to pause the simulation waiting for connection when an exception is catched.

Advanced use

The gdb client offers a easy way to send server specific data though the monitor command. Our Gdb Server takes advantages of the monitor command to provide useful advanced features:

  • The GdbServer may be instructed to dump every inter-function branch to produce a calltrace on stderr. The set_loader function must be used on Gdb iss to enable this feature. This can be enabled globally by adding the C flag to the SOCLIB_GDB environment variable (or the Z flag for dumping only call to function's entrypoint); or on a per processor basis using the calltrace command:
    (gdb) monitor calltrace 0         # disable for all processors
    (gdb) monitor calltrace 1 2       # enable for thread 2 (processor 1)
  • The processor (thread id) used for step by step execution may be forced for the next single step operation:
    (gdb) monitor stepcpu 1
  • The GdbServer may be instructed to break on processor exception or to let the processor jump in its exception handler transparently. When used with an extra parameter, this setting can apply to a single processor instead of all.
    (gdb) monitor except 1            # enable for all processors
    (gdb) monitor except 0 2          # disable for thread 2 (processor 1)
    Exception catching is enabled by default but can be disabled globally by adding the X flag to the the SOCLIB_GDB environment variable.
  • An alternative way to set hardware watch point range is provided to bypass the sometime annoying gdb client watch point feature. It can be used to modify directly the read and write watching intervals. The following commands set a 4 bytes (default is cpu register width) read/write watch interval at 0x12345678 and then excludes read watching for 32 bytes range at 0x12345000. These watch points will be unknown to the gdb client and will be lost when the simulation terminates.
    (gdb) monitor watch rw 0x12345678 
    (gdb) monitor watch -r 0x12345000 32
    This kind of watch points can be added using the SOCLIB_GDB_WATCH environment variable too:
    # export SOCLIB_GDB_WATCH=address[,size][r][w]:...
    export SOCLIB_GDB_WATCH=0x44440000,32w                # write watch [0x44440000, 0x4444001f]
    export SOCLIB_GDB_WATCH=0x12340000r:0x45870000rw      # read watch [0x12340000, 0x12340003], rw watch [0x45870000, 0x45870003]
    The W flag can be added to the the SOCLIB_GDB variable to just report watchpoint hit on stderr and avoid stopping the simulation to be less intrusive.
  • The gdb protocol debug mode may be enabled to dump interaction between client and server:
    (gdb) monitor debug 1
  • The gdb server almost stops the simulation process when the instrumented virtual processors are frozen. This saves resources of the host machine during debugging sessions. However this behavior may be an issue when freezing other platform components is not desirable (Use of multiple GDB servers with different processors, critical I/O device latency, multi-threaded simulation... ). The sleepms command can be used to tweak the simulator sleep time between each execution cycle when the processors are in frozen state. This value may be set to 0 to let the simulation running at full speed or to -1 to completely stop the simulation while processors are frozen. The SOCLIB_GDB_SLEEPMS environment variable can also be used to set this value. An integer ms value is expected. The default value is 100ms.
    (gdb) monitor sleepms 10
  • Executable files can be added during simulation, so that gdb_server is aware of new symbols and is then able to continue performing a correct calltrace:
    (gdb) monitor load /path/to/my/file.exe
    It can be view as the counterpart of the command add-symbol-file except it is done on server side (and the "load address" can not be specified, the file is loaded according to its internal information, e.g. LMA/VMA)
  • The gdb server is able to force the ISS to dump its internal state (in the simulation window) by executing the following command:
    (gdb) monitor dump
  • The ISS2 abstraction defines a (debug mask), that enables displaying debugging information during the simulation. This mask can be set via the gdb server with the following command (val is the new value of the mask):
    (gdb) monitor issdebug val
    At the moment, only the MIPS32 model supports the debug mask and defines the following values:
    • 0x1 (MIPS32_DEBUG_ISS - print ISS signal state)
    • 0x2 (MIPS32_DEBUG_CPU - print CPU instructions & registers)
    • 0x4 (MIPS32_DEBUG_INTERNAL - CPU internal state)
    • 0x8 (MIPS32_DEBUG_IRQ - print CPU irq state)
    • 0x10 (MIPS32_DEBUG_DATA - print CPU load/store)
  • If supported by the cache, the gdb server can enable the display of debugging information form the cache during the simulation. This mask can be set via the gdb server with the following command (val is the new value of the mask):
    (gdb) monitor cachedebug val
    At the moment, only the cc_vcache models support the debug mask and defines the following values:
    • 0x1 (dcache FSM debug)
    • 0x2 (icache FSM debug)
    • 0x4 (cleanup FSM debug, for cc_vcache v4, or cmd FSM debug, for cc_vcache v5)
  • Cycle breakpoints can be used to instruct the GdbServer to stop the simulation at a given cycle number. This enables taking advantage of the fact that SoCLib simulations always yield the same result when executed multiple times. This allows starting a simulation again with a cycle break point to examine the simulator state just before a chosen point is reached or particular event happens. Cycle counts are reported when using the call trace feature for instance. The SOCLIB_GDB_CYCLEBP environment variable must be set to the breaking cycle number to define a cycle break point.

Flags summary

The following flags can be concatenated in the SOCLIB_GDB environment variable (eg, $ export SOCLIB_GDB=SZ)

  • F: start the simulation in a frozen state so it can be attached with a gdb client
  • X: disable automatic break whenever an exception is caught, the exception handler will be called transparently
  • S: make the simulation stop and wait for a gdb attachment whenever an exception is caught
  • C: dump a trace of every inter-functions branch
  • T: exit the simulator on trap exception
  • Z: same as C but display only function's entrypoint
  • W: disable automatic break whenever a watchpoint is hit, just report it on stderr (watchpoints can be defined using SOCLIB_GDB_WATCH)

More informations on using the GDB client can be found on the The GNU Project Debugger home page.

Last modified 10 years ago Last modified on Oct 13, 2014, 5:50:08 PM

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